Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ <p>The journal is a forum for the discussion of ideas, scholarly opinions and case studies of urban resilience in Zimbabwe. It promotes multidisciplinary engagement of urban resilience as a subject and practice. It is a product of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences supported by the UNDP - UNICEF Urban Resilience Programme. The journal is produced bi-annually.</p> en-US (Professor Innocent Chirisa) (Mutsikiwa Admire) Mon, 09 May 2022 14:16:05 +0200 OJS 60 Informality as Part of the Broader Urban System: The Emerging, Dying or Die-hard Sector? <p>The rise of urban informality has been triggered by plunging economic systems, high urbanisation, unemployment and high poverty levels in most developing countries. Mass populations flocking into urban areas from rural areas in search of better levelling opportunities are welcomed with unemployment and a lack of sustainable job prospects. As a result, they opt for informal economic activities. Slowly, but significantly, the informal economic sector has saved the majority who now depend on it for their livelihoods. Despite the harassment by government and its officials against informality, the sector has continued to thrive. Government efforts to efface urban informality have not been followed with complementary efforts to replace the informality with the formal. The informal sector has transfigured to become the new formal amidst economic challenges that have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic which has disturbed economic performance. Against this backdrop, this article explores the informal sector’s potential and relevance for sustainable development. It uses a desktop approach exploring various literature sources to support the arguments raised therein. The informal sector has become part and parcel of today’s cities that needs to be harmonised into the formal sector as both a complement and supplement.</p> Innocent Chirisa, Patience mazanhi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Mustard Seed Disposition in the Informal Sector: Analysing its Growth and Expansionary Prospects in Zimbabwe <p>The study investigated and analysed the growth and expansionary prospects of the informal sector in Zimbabwe and the drive for people to join the sector. This was done through the desk research method and personal observation. The study reviewed the growth and graduation trends of the informal sector enterprises in Zimbabwe and the barriers to growth being faced by the sector. The study shows that the Zimbabwean informal sector enterprises are not growing or graduating due to their micro capacity and type. The implication is that both the growth and expansion prospects of this sector in Zimbabwe are very limited. This is due to many growth-inhibiting challenges and constraints faced by these enterprises reviewed in the study. The study concludes by proposing some measures that can be implemented to allow unfettered growth and expansion of the sector’s enterprises.</p> Takawira Mumvuma, Teresa Nyika, Tinashe Magande Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Varying Shades of Settlement Informality in Zimbabwe‘s Urban Areas and How this Impacts Public Sector Regularisation Attitudes and Responses <p>This article explores how differently assessed informal settlements inform state regularisation responses. It expands the understanding of state responses to informal settlements that are established by different actors. These include the urban poor on one hand, and the elite involved in manipulating peri-urban and urban land access and housing development, on the other. It draws on practical experiences with qualitative research into marginalised settlements. The article shows how the transition from state-led housing delivery of the mid-1990s to self-provisioning, riding on fast track (urban) land reforms from 2000 and harshly disrupted in 2005, created new forms of settlement informality. This transition muddied traditional state responses, exposing the reality that regulating extensive informality is simply daunting. The article shows the variability of Zimbabwe’s settlement informality in relation to settlement-specific i) extent of state involvement; ii) agency of different actors; iii) location and proximity to established services; and iv) past and prospective financing models. It shows that addressing urban informality requires a coherent, inclusive and sustainable approach. This will critically transform Zimbabwe’s traditional toolbox of evictions and demolitions while helping reconceptualise informality and responses thereto.</p> Kudzai Chatiza, Pardon Gotora Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Information Use, Flow and Ethics in the Informal Sector: Towards an Innovative Model <p>This article interrogates how information is used and how it flows in the informal sector to develop an innovative model to satisfy the information it needs. A miscellany of information is available on how informal businesses are managed in Harare. However, some of this information is in the custody of a few and not readily available in the mainstream media. Some of it is also misinformation. Innovative ways of processing and disseminating information generated from the informal sector are critical. Qualitative methodology was adopted and semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from selected informal sectors in Harare. The study revealed that in the informal sector, information is used to guide decision making regarding what products to order and how to price such products, where to get affordable stock and raw material, and markets for products. The main sources of information cited were social media and word of mouth from peers. Mainstream media was seldom used and other online databases of information. The study showed that there are often ethical issues on how information circulates in the informal sector, such as the authenticity of the information and some players withheld information. Findings from the study have implications on the design and delivery of information services in the informal sector. An integrated model on information generation and use in the informal sector was developed to advance the use and dissemination of information towards the development of the informal sector.</p> Agnes Chikonzo, Nancy Kwangwa, Masimba Muziringa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 New Game in Town: Selling via Social Media in Harare <p>The way of doing business has been reconfigured due to technological transformations in human life. The tremendous rise of competition has made the luring of new customers in business a mammoth task. Sharing of online content is now considered to be the powerful word-of-mouth marketing in business world-wide. In Zimbabwe, social media selling has also become very common. The study explored social media selling, focusing on actors that are involved as well as how they are recruited and platforms that they use when advertising and the challenges they are facing. A qualitative methodology was employed where 20 representatives from Tupperware, Table Charm, Herbalife and Avon were purposively selected for in-depth interviews. It was informed by the relational marketing and agency theory. The study established that although online selling has a number of advantages compared to physical marketing, ordinary people are excluded from the game. As such, these emerging virtual markets cannot totally replace the physical markets. The research implored the government to create space for more sellers to encourage equal participation of all by social media selling.</p> Rosemary Kasimba, Solomon Muqayi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Home Industrial Sites: Spaces of Hope or Spaces of Despair? <p>Most debates about the informal sector occur within specific disciplines, but they all happen in space that is the domain of spatial planning. This article provides a penetrative analysis into what transpires in home industries, places where numerous informal manufacturing activities take place. The article is based on a longitudinal-single case study of a site known as the Complex in one residential area of Harare, Zimbabwe. Within this case study, data were gathered using observation and photography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and documentary review. Qualitative, quantitative and spatial data were analysed using sentimental analysis, R Language and QGIS, respectively. The research revealed that the Complex has grown beyond its set boundary, depicting a successful cluster. However, in development control terms, growth beyond set boundaries is regarded as a violation of urban legislation. Also noted is the presence of strong social capital that bonds manufacturers together. Nevertheless, most manufacturers raised complaints about intermediary activities by touts that disturb the smooth flow of their daily business. The concept of home industries supports the New Urban Agenda in many ways. It is recommended that urban legislation and regulation be revised to incorporate contextual realities because the laws governing home industries in Zimbabwe were enacted at least two decades ago and do not fully reflect the changing socio-economic environment. Furthermore, planning authorities must devise strategies for re-designing home industries with view of decongesting them.</p> Simbarashe Mazongonda, Percy Toriro, Tanyaradzwa Mapfumo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Housing Informality: Gaps and Promising Models in Zimbabwe <p>This article examines housing informality through the lens of housing policy and identifies the gaps in practice. It argues that housing policy and the implementation thereof is central to addressing housing informality in cities. This is against the background that housing informality is, to some extent, a resultant effect of the gap between housing policy and its implementation and that housing policies that do not offer appropriate housing models, contribute to the creation of housing informality. A qualitative research approach was adopted, with document review, desk review and key informant interviews used to collect data. Findings revealed that the housing policy in Zimbabwe does not provide options for proper housing models. Instead, they provide options that are beyond the reach of low-income earners and the poor. It was concluded that housing informality is a result of poor housing delivery models as well as gaps between policy and practice. Recommendations are that the housing policy should offer options for housing delivery models that help to reduce the gap between policy and practice and, subsequently, housing informality.</p> Nyasha Mutsindikwa, Jeofrey Matai, Willoughby Zimunya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Informal Health Strategies: The Use of Traditional Home Remedies in the Fight against COVID-19 in Urban Harare, Zimbabwe <p>COVID-19 is currently a global pandemic that has resulted in more than two million deaths to date. Due to the limited supply of vaccines and poor health systems across developing countries, people have resorted to home remedies as a means of managing COVID-19. In Zimbabwe, the use of home remedies has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article documents and examines the home remedies that were utilised to treat COVID-19 symptoms by patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. It utilised a qualitative research approach to collect primary data about home remedies used during COVID-19. Eight in-depth interviews were conducted with people who have recovered from COVID-19 in Harare, Zimbabwe. Most of the respondents recommended home remedies to manage COVID-19. Home remedies used by the participants include routine exercises, herbal concoctions and self-isolation. These home remedies may provide a way to manage COVID-19.However, to attain this goal, extensive research followed by clinical studies are needed.</p> Kudzaishe Mangombe, Ian Marufu, Amos Milanzi, Stanzia Moyo, Collet Muza, Lazarus Zanamwe, Lovemore Makurirofa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ‗Nothing to Show Because of this Dirt?‘ Prospects for Urban Tourism under Informality <p>This article examines the contribution of destination physical appeal (both cleanliness and urban planning) to tourism destination competitiveness based on urban tourism under the impact of informality. The research established the influence of effective cleanliness and proper urban planning on a destination in line with tourist best practices. It was motivated by the continual informality in urban areas resulting in poor destination appeal. A mixed method of qualitative and quantitative was used in the research. Case studies of the oldest residential areas from South Africa and Zimbabwe, that is Soweto and Mbare, respectively, were used. These were chosen because of their popularity and active social and economic activities. Research findings indicated that destination appeal plays a central role in making a destination more competitive than the others. Most old towns are somehow neglected in terms of formal development yet they have a lot to offer in terms of tourism. Though there are many unique attractions and activities to show, dirty places are unattractive and feared by visitors. The study, therefore, recommends that there be a holistic approach to urban planning to manage destination appeal. Cooperation of public, private and non-governmental parties is a necessity for the old towns to be more appealing to visitors.</p> Dorothy Zengeni, Blessing Muchenje, Miriam Mbasera Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Unhu/Ubuntu the Missing Link in Urban Informal Manufacturers and Traders in Zimbabwe: Seeking to Close the Gap <p>Integrating Unhu/Ubuntu/ethics and critical thinking into the informal business sector is one way of maximising the relevance of services and goods for enhanced customers’ satisfaction and sustainability of the informal industry segment. The lack of Unhu/ubuntu and critical thinking, however, among the urban manufacturers and traders constitute a major challenge for sustainability. This article argues for the necessity to apply Unhu/ubuntu and critical thinking philosophies as an innovation to support informal urban manufacturers and traders to enhance sustainability in business. First, an attempt was made to present real-life experiences of some customers who had been conned by urban manufacturers and traders at Mbare Musika in Harare, Zimbabwe. Second, the integration of Unhu/ubuntu and critical thinking into the informal business sector are argued as ways in which sustainability in the sector could be enhanced. The main deductions of the study are that workshops should be held for the informal sector to empower them with skills of professional business ethics and that leadership should provide legal frameworks and education for the informal sector. Further, leadership should be exemplary and understanding the after-effects of leadership’s failure to be responsible and ethical.</p> Ngoni Makuvaza, Gracious Zinyeka Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Urban Youth Resilience in Zimbabwe: Reflections on the Mufakose Youth of Harare in Light of the Provisions of the National Youth Policy <p>This article is based on a study that investigated the impact of the effectiveness of the National Youth and Employment Policy on urban youths. The article emanates from the move by the Government of Zimbabwe to develop a National Youth Policy. The policy stance was influenced by the idea to enhance the well-being of youths. This has been the general global and regional stance. The literature points to the fact that governments are focusing on youth towards the sustainability of their developmental initiatives. Using a qualitative research methodology with interviews used to collect data, thematic content analysis is used to analyse the data. The study identified that youths engaged in various illegal activities following idleness - drug abuse, robbery and rape, among others. The article recommends that government engage in youth empowerment programmes.</p> Shamiso Gomo, Priscilla Mujuru Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Building Community Resilience through Alleviating Violence against Women and Girls in Dombotombo, Marondera <p>This article builds an argument on the efficacy of strategies to alleviate violence against women and girls (VAWG) in building community resilience in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by four objectives, i.e. to identify the most prevalent cases of VAWG, assess whether women and girls are knowledgeable and fully informed to understand VAWG from awareness campaigns, assess the contribution of awareness campaigns to increased reporting of VAWG and how they can be improved to promote sustained ability of women and girls to withstand and recover from violence. Non-probability sampling techniques were employed to formulate 15 participants who participated in focus group discussion, in-depth and key informant interviews. Data were collected, organised, presented and discussed using qualitative research methodologies. Results revealed that the most prevalent cases of VAWG were domestic, physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic violence. The research revealed potential benefits of reporting. Participants lacked knowledge and understanding of VAGW except for key informants who portrayed practical understanding. It concluded that VAWG is still prevalent despite persistent efforts to alleviate it through awareness campaigns, the major strategy assessed in this study, and recommended the need to strengthen VAWG alleviation strategies in building community resilience.</p> Ruvimbo Chivere, Langton Mundau Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Rethinking Harare‘s Health Infrastructure under the Impact of COVID-19: An Agenda for Planning <p>The geometric increase of COVID-19 cases in some cities provides a clear signal to city authorities to prepare for international standard health infrastructure that accommodates more patients. Spiking figures of COVID-19 cases in towns also require city authorities to re-plan and re-orient health infrastructures guided by international health standards guidelines set by the World Health Organisations (WHO). Some of these pandemics are ground-borne and others are air-borne. This means that proper planning and orientation of health infrastructure is needed, taking into account issues of accessibility and affordability by its users. With this in mind, the outbreak of COVID-19 can be viewed as a game-changer in the planning of health infrastructure than just a passing phase. This article argues that current health infrastructure considers re-planning and orientation to cater for the voluminous increase in the number of patients to be accommodated, especially with the outbreak of COVID-19. The researchers used qualitative methodology and the study was an extensive desktop review of literature on re-planning of health infrastructure in light of pandemics. The research establishes that the health infrastructure needs re-planning for it to meet the WHO standards on COVID-19 in terms of safety health for both workers and the recipients of the health services provided by these infrastructures.</p> Nesbert T Mashingaidze, Innocent Chirisa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 State and Non-State Welfare Interventions for Cushioning Zimbabwe‘s Urban Poor: Some Critical Insights <p>This secondary literature-based article explores what state and non-state social welfare programmes target the urban poor. The article interrogates the extent to which interventions bolster obtaining precarious and survivalist livelihoods in the face of COVID-19 impacts, natural climatic shocks and intractable socio-economic challenges. It critiques the robustness of interventions for urban poverty mitigation. Alongside analysing Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) social protection mechanisms' robustness, the article offers pathways towards social security transformation better marshalling targeting urban poor.</p> Tatenda Nhapi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Potentiality for a Resilient Urban Social Forestry Programme in Zimbabwe: Lessons from Trees Planted by the Harare Municipality in the Avenues Area between 1890 - 2020 <p>This article focuses on tree species being propagated in public and private nurseries and planted by the City of Harare's Horticultural Department (Department of Works) along streets in the Avenues Area. The article also presents perceptions of selected residents to gain insights into governance issues in Harare. Key informant interviews with various stakeholders (residents, government officials, City of Harare horticulturalists and nursery attendants) were combined with group discussions with selected residents, both young and old. The study also included physical counts of seedlings&nbsp; in nurseries and analyses of nursery records. Research findings show that despite both private and public nurseries being stocked with both exotic and indigenous tree species, local authorities in Harare are still biased towards exotics, but a sizeable proportion of residents preferring the other.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sheila Gotora, Billy Mukamuri, Kudakwashe Manana Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200