Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ <p>The journal is a forum for the discussion of ideas, scholarly opinions and case studies of urban resilience in Zimbabwe. It promotes multidisciplinary engagement of urban resilience as a subject and practice. It is a product of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences supported by the UNDP - UNICEF Urban Resilience Programme. The journal is produced bi-annually.</p> Univeristy of Zimbabwe en-US Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2707-2118 Recreational Facilities and Space Needs Analysis and Residential Densification: A Review of Design Standards in a Case Study of Harare, Zimbabwe <p>The designing of recreational facilities and spaces attentive to the <br>analytical daily needs of beneficiaries can make densified residential <br>suburbs healthy and vibrant. Yet, enduring modernist development <br>planning practices in a post-colonial African city seem to downplay <br>recreational space in both old and new poor neighbourhoods. The <br>article traces this trend to the segregationist urban planning <br>standards in pre-independence Zimbabwe that curried favour with <br>the small racist white enclave community. Nevertheless, the skewed <br>planning standards now seem to overshadow recreational space in <br>emerging and poor urban settlements. The empirical work of the <br>article examines the impact of these planning standards on <br>recreational space in the low-income suburbs of Mbare, Highfields, <br>Cold Comfort and Crowborough Farm in Harare. The results <br>demonstrate how low-income households blame the poor quality of <br>social life in densified neighbourhoods on the existing cracks in the <br>governance of recreational facilities and space. The experience <br>beckons regular policy reviews of residential design standards to <br>respond to the analytical needs of residents in old and emerging lowincome suburbs over time.</p> Elias Mazhindu Yvonne Munanga Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 1 24 High-rise Flats: A Case of a Failed Densification Agenda in Zimbabwe? <p>Land is a finite resource that requires careful management. When <br>land is not carefully managed, it can be wasted, and this can result in <br>urban sprawl. Many urban settlements in Zimbabwe typically are <br>sprawling outwards, eating into the land that is supposed to be for <br>agriculture and other non-urban uses. Zimbabwe‟s capital city, <br>Harare, has more than doubled the area it covers over the past few <br>decades. It is estimated that Harare grew its urban footprint from <br>approximately 300km2 at independence in 1980 to about 1000m2<br>only 30 years later by the year 2010. This exponential outward urban <br>spatial growth has taken place despite deliberate planning policies <br>and measures to curb urban sprawl. Two important policies are <br>contained in the Harare Master Plan that demonstrate the planning <br>intention to contain urban sprawl. These are densification and <br>vertical development. If strictly implemented, these policies would <br>have seen massive development of high-rise housing developments in <br>the city. Using mixed research methods, the article reveals that there <br>have not been any significant high-rise flat developments in Harare <br>since the master plan was formulated. While the agenda remains in <br>planning policy, practically this has not been a successful agenda.</p> Percy Toriro Tafadzwa Mutambisi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 25 44 Leapfrog Developments – Gaps, Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Development: Cases of Harare and Durban <p>In 2000, the Government of Zimbabwe embarked on land reform <br>and land redistribution programme, popularly known as the “Fast <br>Track”. The programme was meant to correct the inequalities and <br>inequities in land ownership between the minority whites and the <br>majority blacks, and targeted agricultural land. At the same time, the <br>Government decided to address urban growth and expansion by <br>deliberately allocating some of the acquired farms for urban <br>development. This noble idea resulted in the “mushrooming” of <br>settlements in an almost unplanned fashion. Most of these <br>settlements were divorced from the master and local plans of most <br>urban centres and, therefore, lacked the necessary infrastructure such <br>as water, roads and sewerage systems and key social services such as <br>schools, clinics and waste management disposal systems did not exist. <br>Over 20 years later, the situation has barely improved, and the <br>outbreaks of diseases and pandemics such as cholera and typhoid are <br>testimony to this. The article, focusing on the Harare Metropolitan <br>Province and surrounding rural and urban local authorities and the <br>City of Durban in South Africa, seeks to investigate whether the landreform programme is the only reason for leapfrog developments that have characterised urban environments. The article relies heavily on <br>secondary data but makes use of primary data obtained through <br>discussions with relevant planning authorities. The article argues that <br>while the land reform programme played a key role, it is one of many <br>factors for these developments that have taken place in an <br>uncontrolled manner.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lovemore Chipungu Joseph Kamuzhanje Elizabeth D Makonese Hope H Magidimisha-Chipungu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 45 65 The City is Wholesaling: Implications of N Richards Group and Metro Peech Locations to Greening Endeavours in the Harare Urban Space <p>The article seeks to explore and discuss the possible effects associated <br>with a city is wholesaling, that is currently on a drive in Zimbabwe‟s <br>capital city of Harare as seen by the emergence of new vibrant and <br>giant wholesalers in some high- to medium-density residential areas, <br>including Hatcliffe, Msasa, Sunningdale and Tynwald. City <br>wholesaling in Harare has emerged and is on the rise at a time that is <br>deemed to be perfect, considering the advantages that wholesaling in <br>nearby suburbs is offering to the city centre. The study is based on <br>the notion that wholesaling of large quantities of goods requires <br>extensive space that is unavailable within the city centre, hence some <br>of the wholesale shops end up locating in or close to industrial areas <br>and others in commercial areas within local suburbs and <br>neighbourhoods. It becomes important for these industries to go <br>green for less negative implications posed on the environment and <br>the local people‟s livelihoods. The study made use of geographical <br>information systems (GIS) technology to map the location and <br>distribution of N Richards (NR) and Metro Peech (MP) Wholesalers <br>in Harare. From the mapping exercise, the study found out that the <br>location of these giant wholesalers has been highly due to the need <br>for much space, and nearness to high populations as in the case ofMP along Seke Road, in close proximity to Sunningdale and Hatfield suburbs which are highly populated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Edwin Nyamugadza Tinashe N Kanonhuwa Raymond Mudehwe Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 66 82 Re-planning Begging? Harare‘s Health Infrastructure Under the Impact of COVID-19 <p>The eruption of infectious diseases such as cholera and COVID-19 in <br>cities and towns requires city health authorities to rethink soft and <br>hard health infrastructure re-planning. Infrastructure (hard and soft) <br>is the operational framework of any institution or organization. <br>Therefore, an organisation cannot function properly if the existing <br>infrastructure is not serving its function. COVID-19 has caused <br>serious havoc in towns and cities. The rate at which infectious <br>diseases such as COVID-19 are spreading shows that the carrying <br>capacity of hospitals and clinics has been exceeded, leading to the <br>conversion of some structures into health infrastructure amid fears of <br>increasing numbers of infected persons. The geometric increase of <br>COVID-19 cases in some cities provides a clear signal to city <br>authorities to prepare for international standard health infrastructure <br>that accommodates more patients. Spiking figures of COVID-19 <br>cases in towns require city authorities to re-plan and re-orient health <br>infrastructures guided by international health standards guidelines <br>set by World Health Organisation (WHO). Additionally, some of <br>these pandemics are ground-borne and others are air-borne. This <br>means that proper planning and orientation of health infrastructure <br>is needed, taking into account issues of accessibility and affordability <br>by its users. With this in mind, the outbreak of COVID-19 can be <br>viewed as a game-changer in the planning of city health <br>infrastructure than just a passing phase. The article argues that <br>current city health infrastructure considers re-planning and <br>orientation to cater for the voluminous increase in the number of patients to be accommodated, especially with the outbreak of <br>COVID-19.</p> Nesbert Mashingaidze Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 83 103 Cluster Home Developments In Low density Areas in Harare: A Case Study of Greendale, Harare, Zimbabwe <p>Several Harare‟s low-density residential areas in Zimbabwe are fast <br>changing due to densification initiatives in the form of cluster <br>housing and garden flats. The increased developments that changed <br>the face of Greendale in Harare were mainly through Local Plan 56, <br>which permitted land-use change and promoted densification of large <br>stands in the area and this resulted in an increased population. The <br>article, therefore, seeks to assess the impacts of cluster housing <br>developments on property values and neighbourhood character in <br>areas initially zoned as low density. It assesses the extent to which <br>existing infrastructure and services suffice the residents‟ needs <br>concerning the new demands of densification in the form of cluster <br>housing. The study explores the perceptions of residents to examine <br>the knowledge and attitudes of developers, values and other real <br>estate professionals regarding cluster development and proffers <br>optimal options for cluster housing development. The study <br>employed a mixed-methods approach where both qualitative and <br>quantitative data were used. Overall, it is noted that most urban <br>development in the 21st century is characterised by a drift toward <br>promoting compact and self-sustained cities as opposed to the <br>sprawled and dispersed ones.</p> Danayo Olivia Mukurazhizha Shamiso Hazel Mafuku Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 104 128 Densification Efforts by Urban Local Authorities in Zimbabwe under the Impact of COVID-19 <p>The article examines the implications of densifying cities in the <br>context of rapid urbanisation and COVID-19. One of the issues <br>concerning the spreading of COVID-19 is the role played by <br>population density. Increasing density has benefits that relate to <br>counteracting the detrimental effects of urban sprawl. However, the <br>emergence of COVID-19 poses challenges in implementing <br>densification due to tensions between its benefits and health impacts. <br>Therefore, the article considers the implications of COVID-19 on <br>densification efforts made by municipal authorities in Zimbabwe. <br>The research adopted the social interpretivism philosophy and the <br>qualitative research approach in investigating the problem. It used <br>the exploratory research design and the health urban planning and <br>sustainable city concepts to inform the study. Data collection was <br>through documentary review and key informant interviews. The data <br>were analysed through content and thematic analysis. The study <br>reveals that density is not the only factor that contributes to the <br>spread of COVID-19. It is concluded that densification cannot be <br>discarded because of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Willoughby Zimunya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 129 151 Foresights: The Urban Water and Real Estate Development Nexus in the Mount Hampden ‗New City‘ Project, Zimbabwe <p>The article interrogates and exposes the criticality of water as a <br>crucial aspect defining urban and real estate development projects in <br>territorial planning, design and implementation. It questions how <br>and why a century after Mt Hampden (outside Harare) was <br>discarded as a potential site by the British Pioneer Column, it has <br>suddenly become possible to establish the same site and environment <br>as a seat of government. The new Parliament Building is already <br>under construction by the Chinese and, once it is completed, is <br>believed to become a puller of investment and various other urban <br>functions. It would appear that „things‟ were better then, than now. <br>Using a triangulation of literature review, document review and key <br>informant interviews, the article observes several critical <br>developments in scholarship, policy and practice. In policy and <br>practice, it is has observed that the Pioneer Column saw simplistic <br>and rudimentary measures such as retreating to living in proximity of <br>open water sources (in this case Mukuvisi River in Harare) as the <br>low-cost and cheap and only possible option then. Technology had <br>not been developed to harvest water, including groundwater for a <br>growing urban-like population such as they were. Secondly, the <br>choice of Harare Kopje as the epicentre of development then was <br>much about security, seeing that the new white migrants were <br>settling among a sea of the autochthons – the Shona – they were not sure of how they would react. Thirdly, the New City is a <br>development that is a post-modern development taking place in a <br>context of deep poverty in the country and might appear as a sign of <br>extravagance on the part of the government, hence insensitive to the <br>"people‟s needs‟ at the moment.</p> Yvonne Munanga Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 152 173 Urban Retrofits and Reticulations in the Densification Efforts: Energy, Water, Sanitation and Transport <p>This article examines energy, sanitation and transport as key flows in <br>urban management systems and how these are critical aspects of the <br>densification efforts. It argues that circulation and flow are what <br>makes the urban area function. Densification and retrofitting in <br>urban settlements have now become a global trend as cities attempt <br>to manage increasing populations and real estate investment. It is <br>thus critical for urban planning to develop strategies that can ensure <br>adequate energy, water, sanitation and transportation. However, in <br>developing these strategies, key insight into urban form, structure, <br>function, infrastructure and city image is required. The objective of <br>this exploration is to propose a theoretical framework upon which <br>the urban retrofitting and densification may be implemented with <br>focus on energy, water sanitation and transportation as current indemand issues that need addressing.</p> Dickson D Mhlanga Shamiso Hazel Mafuku Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 174 199 Designing Urban Resilience-building Programmes in Zimbabwe: An Exploratory Review <p>This article is an attempt to explore the urban resilience programme<br>for Zimbabwe‟s urban areas. This is against the background that <br>Zimbabwe‟s urban areas are facing several challenges that stem from <br>social, spatial, economic and political dimensions. In summary, the <br>challenges are the failure to adequately treat sewage, failure to <br>provide clean water to residents, failure to maintain clean <br>environments through refuse collection and disposal and failure to <br>maintain decent infrastructure. Confronted by complex and diverse <br>social, economic, environmental, political and spatial problems, <br>resilience offers an opportunity to have systems that change, adapt, <br>and, crucially, transform in response to stresses and strains. The <br>emphasis of this study is on how to strengthen the resilience of urban <br>areas by making sure that basic services are provided to all societal <br>groups and that there is good governance in the provision of basic <br>services. In addition, the guide stresses empowering urban areas to <br>pursue comprehensive investment programmes to strengthen <br>resilience and access a broad range of financing options. However, <br>strengthening urban resilience is a complicated process as it is faces<br>problems in different socio-economic and political sectors.</p> Innocent Chirisa Tariro Nyevera Andrew Chigudu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 200 220 Prioritising User-Friendly Urban Public Transport for the Zimbabwean Elderly <p>The population of the aged 60 and above is growing steadily and <br>vigorously, faster than any other age group. There will be about two <br>billion elderly adults by 2050, constituting quite a large part of the <br>world society. This anticipated rapid growth in the elderly <br>population poses a great challenge for transport planners. It is vital <br>to maintain the mobility of elderly people to ensure that they <br>continue to engage in civic and social life, take part in community <br>activities, and pursue human interactions that enrich their health, <br>well-being and quality of life from a social integration perspective. <br>The article examines the challenges faced by planners in the provision <br>of user-friendly urban public transport for the elderly. The study <br>focuses on a case material of the Zimbabwe United Passenger Bus <br>Company (ZUPCO). Study findings reveal that public transport for <br>the elderly remains a critical issue in the Zimbabwean context due to<br>a variety of challenges such as poor transport infrastructure, driver <br>recklessness, lack of due regard for the travelling elderly people, lack <br>of a public transport customer care policy, traffic congestion and lack <br>of appropriate regulatory framework, among others.</p> Bothwell Gweshe Kunaka Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 221 239 Housing Developments by Cooperatives in Harare: An Evaluation of Kuwadzana <p>The changing role of government from being a direct provider of <br>housing to being a facilitator has seen several players coming on <br>board in the provision of housing. Housing co-operatives have been <br>over the years regarded as being instrumental in complementing <br>government‟s efforts in providing houses to urban low-income <br>earners in Zimbabwe. However, due to the increased number of <br>these housing in urban areas, there has been an outcry by some <br>members of the public because some of these housing co-operatives<br>were not conducting their businesses as expected. This has been <br>manifested by the increasing number of informal and illegal housing <br>developments. The thrust of this research was to investigate the <br>extent to which housing developments by cooperatives have been <br>adhering to town planning standards and procedures. Key informant <br>interviews, observations and a survey were used to collect data with<br>the cluster sampling method being used to select questionnaire <br>respondents. Finding reveal that housing developments by <br>cooperatives have largely compromised the urban fabric and <br>residential morphology in terms of spatial planning and <br>development. Urban land has been allocated to cooperatives who, in <br>most cases, do not have the capacity to service the areas. This is <br>evidenced by the current state of these settlements where in most cases, basic infrastructure such as roads, water and sewer does not exist. Public-private partnerships seem to be the only way out to <br>rejuvenate these settlements to attain sustainable urban development.&nbsp;</p> Nyasha Mutsindikwa Marlvin Muchato Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 240 262 Everyday Realities and Practices in Accessing Water and Sanitation in Peri-Urban Settlements in Greater Harare <p>This article examines the magnitude of water and sanitation <br>challenges in peri-urban areas of Greater Harare and the coping <br>mechanisms and strategies residents have adapted to survive in times <br>of scarcity and structural failure. It employed fieldwork backed by<br>observations and a survey-based case study approach, with Caledonia <br>and Hatcliffe Extension as case studies. One hundred questionnaires <br>were distributed in Hatcliffe Extension and 350 in Caledonia. <br>Twenty (20) interviews were also done with residents in each <br>residential area. The article, therefore, adopts a phenomenological <br>approach which helps in bringing out the lived experiences of periurban dwellers. The study revealed the day-to-day struggles of the <br>residents which include travelling long distances to water sources, <br>unsafe water sources, compromised water quality, sanitation <br>practices that affect the disabled and females and sewer mechanisms <br>that do not ensure safe containment of excreta, hence pose a threat to <br>human health. Overall, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) <br>of 2015 set some targets for water and sanitation to be achieved by <br>2030. Progress in improved water supply and sanitation coverage in <br>cities of developing countries has, however, remained extremely slow <br>and the situation is worse in peri-urban areas of major cities.</p> Shamiso Hazel Mafuku Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 263 282 Resilience of Persons with Road Accident Disabilities in the Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Budiriro High - Density Residential Suburb, Harare, Zimbabwe <p>The article interrogates the resilience of persons with road accident <br>disabilities in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic in Budiriro, a <br>high-density suburb, in Zimbabwe. The resilience theory was <br>adopted to analyse and understand the realities of these people. <br>Through purposive sampling, eight participants and two government <br>administrators were interviewed to generate data for this study. The <br>research findings suggest that persons with disabilities induced by <br>road traffic accidents are resilient in the face of several adversities,<br>some induced partly by the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors that <br>contributed towards their resilience are multiple and varied. These<br>include support from their churches and communities, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and the Government of <br>Zimbabwe, relatives, neighbours and well-wishers, among others. <br>The article concludes by lobbying and advocating for the provision of <br>social protection programmes for persons with road accident induced <br>disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Witness Chikoko kudzai Mwapaura Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 4 1 283 300