Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ 2021-08-25T19:59:45+02:00 Professor Innocent Chirisa Open Journal Systems <p>The journal is a forum for the discussion of ideas, scholarly opinions and case studies of urban resilience in Zimbabwe. It promotes multidisciplinary engagement of urban resilience as a subject and practice. It is a product of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences supported by the UNDP - UNICEF Urban Resilience Programme. The journal is produced bi-annually.</p> Fragmented Urban Spaces in Zimbabwe: Can Meaningful Citizen Engagement be Achieved for Resilient Urbanity? 2021-08-25T17:56:39+02:00 Average Chigwenya Linda Magwaro Ndiweni <p>Urban centres in Zimbabwe have been characterised by contestations and coalitions where citizens have been fighting for access to city space. These coalitions and contestations are due to the fragmented nature of city space and the sidelining of some sectors in the development of cities. Some urban dwellers have been given special treatment in the access to city space while others have been disenfranchised of their right to access city space. As a result, cities are boiling pots characterised by contestations and coalitions. To minimise these contestations and conditions, cities should build platforms for citizen engagement for sustainable and resilient cities. This article examines the methods used to engage citizens in development planning in Zimbabwe and also explores challenges faced by different individuals and groups in civic engagements. The findings show that effective citizen participation in Zimbabwe can be scaled up by improving the structures and processes for their participation in city development.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Revisiting the Layout Plan as the Basic Unit for Citizen Engagement for Urban Resilience in Zimbabwe: Remodelling the Script Under the Impact of Big Data 2021-08-25T18:58:48+02:00 Dickson D Mhlanga <p>'Big Data' is the shape of things to come and as we approach the 'Technological Singularity.' It is influencing contemporary urban experiences through advanced data analytics that interface with personal digital devices. This article explores how Big Data and the concept of digital User Experience (UX) can be utilised to improve urban resilience through innovative citizen engagement. From a desktop review of existing literature, there emerge interesting possibilities of how the concepts of Blockchain, Big Data and UX can be utilised to enhance resilience from the layout (neighbourhood) to city-wide level. The emphasis of this enquiry is based on an alternative view of the layout plan as a product or service utilised by consumers to derive a living experience. The extraction and analysis of data sets from the individual layout have the potential to be used to enhance the living experience, thereby mitigating the impact of shocks through innovative technology-based citizen engagement techniques. Reference is also given to global attempts in developing facets of the urban information system. To demonstrate the potential of Big Data, Blockchain and UX in urban resilience a community resilience, information system model is proposed.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Strong Citizens: Informed and Apt to Build their Spaces in the Spirit of Resilience in Urban Zimbabwe 2021-08-25T19:54:06+02:00 Samson Mhizha Richman Kokera Jacqualine Chivasa <p>Despite homelessness, spiralled by the economic and political crises in urban areas of Zimbabwe, urban citizens engaged in resilience strategies in accessing affordable housing in urban areas. But, little has been theorised on the homeless poor strategies in accessing low-cost urban housing. it is against this backdrop that the article seeks to explore the resilience strategies that the urban poor have employed in accessing housing in urban areas. The article is premised on the resilience theory in the face of adversity during economic and political crises that Zimbabwe has gone through. It engaged in desktop research that involved reviewing secondary data on the topic. The resilience strategies employed include human capital, financial capital, social capital, agency, political currency and informality. Nonetheless, some of urban dwellers face vulnerabilities, including having their houses demolished and being defrauded by con artists. The resilience strategies show that urban dwellers are apt and resilient in accessing housing in the context of economic and social crises.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Citizen Engagement for Urban Resilience in Zimbabwe: Insights and Foresights from a Citizen Engagement in Community Development and Council Budgeting Conference 2021-08-25T14:06:07+02:00 Tinashe Kanonhuwa Precious Shumba Innocent Chirisa <p>The article reports and discusses critical insights and foresight that emerged from a workshop on the role of citizen engagement in community development and council budgeting held on the 21st and 23rd of December 2020 in Harare. The article unpacks the reasons behind fake promises by Councillors and Members of Parliament (MPs) to gain public vote, the inability of those in power to represent the public interest and various reasons behind the lack of zeal by the community members to participate in community meetings. The workshop revealed that community members lack unity, in many instances, fail to contribute towards the budgetary process by councils. The workshop recommended the need for community members to come together regardless of party interests and participate in council budgeting for societal interest to be fairly represented. The article emphasises the active role of Councillors and MPs in luring citizens to participate in council budgeting and community development. The workshop concluded that for community development to thrive, citizens ought to be involved in community affairs. This article journeys into the lives of ordinary citizens and the challenges they face regarding participation in community-based development programmes and council budgeting.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Social Accountability and Oversight in Building Urban Resilience: A Critique of the Roles of Parliament and Council in the Urban Affairs of Zimbabw 2021-08-25T18:38:40+02:00 Tawanda Zinyama <p>Throughout the past few decades, social accountability has emerged as an essential means through which residents within council jurisdictions participate in local governance. This article argues that inadequate accountability, oversight and poor governance are the primary challenges in Zimbabwe‟s service delivery. It evaluates the oversight functions of Parliament and councils in the management of urban affairs in Zimbabwe to determine the extent to which engagement and transparency have been utilised as pillars of social accountability. A key observation in this study is the diverse capacity challenges faced by urban councils within the administrative structures and oversight functions. Oversight is very poor in council procurement. Legislation, enforcement and local capacity-building have to be improved in this regard. Parliament and councils have to take on a stronger role in keeping local governments accountable to citizens. This depends on the existence of a conducive legal, administrative and institutional framework for local decision-making in areas, such as planning, budgeting, priority-setting, human resources management, procurement and implementation. This, ultimately, ensures good governance and prudent management of local affairs.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ With the People: Towards an Innovative, People-centric and Relevant Transport Policy Under the Impact of COVID-19 2021-08-25T19:31:55+02:00 Gay Tapiwa Gweshe Matthew Chidhakwa Amanda C Chakacha <p>For years, a vast of Zimbabwe‟s innovative transport initiatives have lied lifeless in the implementation bed. Those that seem to be surviving are struggling to attain their goals. Although this problematic disorder can be blamed on a wide spectrum of variables, this article deliberately suggests that one of the dominant reasons for such an outcome is a top-down approach that has been religiously adopted by the government in some of its innovative transport policy processes. This has resulted in policies lacking citizen compliance despite the government's efforts to enforce them, even through coercive instruments. Given this background, the need for a people-centric approach, one that influences innovative transport policies from a citizen's perspective is inevitable. Therefore, this article seeks to expand key milestones towards embracing a people-centric innovative transport policy under the impact of COVID-19. Through an analysis of selected country experiences, the study captured these key issues highlighting the extent to which a people-centric approach improves or positively influences an innovative transport policy resulting in sustainable urban transport management in Zimbabwe.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Communicating with the Citizens on Pertinent Urban Planning Issues in Zimbabwe: Problem and Prospects for Building Resilience 2021-08-25T18:21:49+02:00 Patience Mukuzunga George Makunde Innocent Chirisa <p>The article seeks to discuss the communication between the local authorities and the citizens on urban planning issues. These issues include demolition of illegal structures, building on wetlands and pollution. The article also explains the mechanismsthat are being used for the transmission of information. Lack of communication in urban planning issues has destroyed houses, breaking the laws and construction on wetlands, street vending and environmental destruction. Communication with citizens on relevant urban planning matters enablesurban areas to recover from difficult experiences. This is because, in the process of communication, citizens become increasingly aware of the positive and negative impact of their actions on the urban environment. Efficient communication with the symbols, signs and text that is understood by citizens is encouraged. Communication is the solution to the destruction of houses, pollution and wetland construction thatseems to be ignored by citizens. Despite many studies that were made on urban planning issues, there is a gap in understanding how proper ways of communicating with citizens on pertinent issues in urban planning enables resilience.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Sport and Leisure Promotion in Urban Zimbabwe: Instrument for Sustainable Development and Resilience-building 2021-08-25T19:11:57+02:00 Manase Kudzai Chiweshe Gerald Dandah <p>The article discusses how sport and leisure promotion in urban Zimbabwe can provide important spaces for citizen engagement and resilience-building. Studies on urban development in Africa and, more specifically, Zimbabwe, tend to focus more on matters that are perceived as „serious‟, such as planning, housing, health, livelihoods, poverty and well-being and other challenges. Leveraging sport for development has not received adequate attention and there is a distinct lack of studies in the context of Zimbabwe. This article argues that sport and leisure promotion can be important drivers for sustainable development and resilience. It uses examples of various sporting and leisure activities to analyse contributions and opportunities provided by sport in promoting urban development and resilience. The article thus highlights how sporting and leisure-based activities in Zimbabwe can be harnessed as a means of promoting development. It proposes a sport and resilience framework that is critical to building capabilities, assets and agency of individuals and households in maintaining and quickly recovering from shock or stress. The article shows various instances in which sport and leisure can be utilised in various programmes related to health, gender equality, youth empowerment and employment creation.<br><br></p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ The State of Municipal and Related By-Laws and their Contributions to Urban Resilience in Zimbabwe 2021-08-25T19:59:45+02:00 Kudzai Chatiza Elmond Bandauko <p>Zimbabwean cities have become vulnerable to climate change impacts. Climate change is impacting city systems and populations. The shocks are contributing to urban poverty. These realities make it critical for urban planning, management and governance instruments to integrate resilience. Given that municipal by-laws are key to urban governance, their effectiveness enables urban resilience. This study analysed the status of municipal by-laws in the context of urban resilience. It used quasi-legal, organisational and socio-economic analyses to establish the political economy of by-law development and enforcement in Zimbabwe. Data were gathered from nine urban councils across the hierarchy of urban centres. The analysis focused on the regulation of basic services (principally water, sanitation and hygiene(WASH) including solid waste) and Local Economic Development (LED). Findings reveal that Zimbabwe‟s councils face serious inadequacies in these service areas, that their by-laws are inadequate and the framework and capacity to address these constraints are limited. The rapid socio-economic changes in urban areas, characterised by informalisation in the context of climate change, limited financial and technical capacity to plan and manage urban services, make this worse.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ What Makes a Citizen? Reflection on the Zimbabwean Urban Space 2021-08-25T15:33:02+02:00 Tinashe Bobo Christine Chivandire Tariro Nyevera <p>The article focuses on determinants of urban citizenship concerningthe rights, duties and responsibilities of citizens in urban areas. This is against the background that a connection between citizens and their participation in urban affairs is critical towards urban resilience. Urban areas are spaces where rights and duties of citizenship can be enacted and exercised. Seemingly missing in the literature is the variability in the rights and duties of urban citizens in different contexts and their importance in shaping the urban space, their contributions and adverse actions that tarnish the image and development of the urban space? Experiences in Zimbabwe show that citizenship is shaped mainly by the politics, institutions and laws of that area. It is recommended that the consideration of the rights of citizens in urban areas be done to allow full participation in the development of urban areas. Citizenship ought to be defined without any political influence to enable the participation of urban dwellers in shaping and transforming the urban space more sustainably without fear of exercising one‟s right or informally acting in a manner that destroys the outlook of urban areas and their public and private spaces.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Plan Preparation and Review as Tools for Developing Urban Resilience in Zimbabwe: Conflicts and Possibilities 2021-08-25T18:45:01+02:00 Percy Toriro <p>Plan preparation and review can be powerful tools for developing urban resilience as they are expert processes that have important citizen engagement processes. The plan preparation or review process is led by urban planners but involves numerous built environment professionals to provide data that feeds into the plan formulation. Residents are supposed to be involved in the plan preparation process, hence the process is expected to be inclusive as it engages the citizens. Using secondary data and reviewing existing master and local plans and key informant interviews, the article considers whether the process of plan preparation and review can be used as tools for developing urban resilience. Using four case studies, the article establishes that while the plan preparation and review processes present opportunities for developing urban resilience, in reality, this has not happened since most urban areas are using old plans, the plans have not been implemented, or plan preparation adopted flawed consultative processes. The article concludes that with most plans out of date, they no longer address contemporary challenges. Planning provisions and processes must be followed so that plan preparation can serve as a tool for developing urban resilience.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Big Data for What? Deciphering Messages from Citizens towards Building Urban Resilience in Zimbabwe 2021-08-25T19:45:13+02:00 Willoughby Zimunya Jeofrey Matai Fungai N Mukora <p>The article examines the importance of citizens as a source of real-time data for urban resilience planning and building. One of the challenges that governments face in decision-making for urban resilience planning and building is the lack of real-time and high-quality data. This challenge is being encountered despite the existence of big data. However, other countries, such as the United States of America, Spain, China and Australia, are taking advantage of the rich and all-encompassing big data obtained from citizens to craft responsive urban resilience policies and plans. Using the qualitative research methodology, interviews were used to collect primary data, whilst document analysis and desktop review were used to gather secondary data. The study revealed that with proper data mining and analytics, governments can yield invaluable data from citizens for making good decisions that promote urban resilience. It concludes that currently, with good analytical approaches, there is an opportunity for governments to formulate sound and evidence-based policies for building urban resilience partly from the rich data that is generated by citizens.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Engaging Citizens for Resilience: Media, Messaging and Relevance in Urban Zimbabwe 2021-08-25T18:29:28+02:00 Wellington Gadzikwa <p>The media is an integral part of society and an indispensable tool that allows citizens to make informed decisions and participate in everyday life through the production and dissemination of objective and professional news. Using the flexible and multi-disciplinary stakeholder definition which defines resilience as “ the ability of an urban system and all its constituent socio-ecological and socio-technical networks across temporal and spatial scales to maintain or rapidly return to desired functions in the face of disturbance, to adapt to change and to quickly transform systems that limit current or future adaptive capacity” (Meerow et al., 2016:39), this article assesses the relevance of media messaging on flooding in urban areas to promote urban resilience. Through a qualitative content analysis of selected news articles focusing on all urban areas in Zimbabwe, this article analyses how the stories on flooding helped promote urban resilience. This was done to recommend the best media that can be a useful tool in enhancing urban resilience in Zimbabwean urban settings. Results indicate that the media lacks a proper orientation on urban resilience in its reportage and needs capacitation.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ Models and Strategies in Budgeting in Zimbabwean Urban Local Authorities: Towards Meaningful Citizen Engagement for Resilience 2021-08-25T19:21:05+02:00 Tinashe Magande Teresa Nyika Nyasha Takawira Mutsindikwa <p>This article is based on a study that examined urban local authorities and the models and strategies they are employing in their budgeting processes in Zimbabwe. Urban local authorities are governed by the Urban Councils Act (UCA) in Zimbabwe. Both primary and secondary data collection methods were employed. These were predominantly desk review and key informants‟ interviews. The study examines four cass of urban local authorities in Zimbabwe and these are Kwekwe, Beitbridge, Harare and Gweru. The literature reviewed indicates that various budgeting models and strategies can be used by urban local authorities. These include traditional Line-item Budgeting, zero-based budgeting, gender-based budgeting, performance-based budgeting, participatory budgeting (PB) and the planning programming budgeting systems. Results indicate that most urban local authorities in Zimbabwe have migrated to the use of a participatory budgetary system. However, urban local authorities are finding it difficult to fully embrace the PB model. The study recommends further research into the challenges faced by the urban local authorities in fully embracing their adopted PB processes to derive sustainable, effective and targeted solutions for good governance.</p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Urban Systems and Innovations for Resilience in Zimbabwe -JUSIRZ