Urban Retrofits and Reticulations in the Densification Efforts: Energy, Water, Sanitation and Transport


  • Dickson D Mhlanga
  • Shamiso Hazel Mafuku


chaos theory, urban economic activity analysis, informality, geographical information science, geographical information systems


This article examines energy, sanitation and transport as key flows in
urban management systems and how these are critical aspects of the
densification efforts. It argues that circulation and flow are what
makes the urban area function. Densification and retrofitting in
urban settlements have now become a global trend as cities attempt
to manage increasing populations and real estate investment. It is
thus critical for urban planning to develop strategies that can ensure
adequate energy, water, sanitation and transportation. However, in
developing these strategies, key insight into urban form, structure,
function, infrastructure and city image is required. The objective of
this exploration is to propose a theoretical framework upon which
the urban retrofitting and densification may be implemented with
focus on energy, water sanitation and transportation as current indemand issues that need addressing.